Which kind of organic waste is being used in the RES URBIS project?

Several types of urban bio-wastes will be treated and simultaneously converted into valuable products in the framework of the RES URBIS Project. These bio-wastes include:

  • the organic fraction from separate collection of municipal solid waste, such as food and kitchen waste from households, restaurants, caterers and retail premises;
  • excess sludge from treatment of urban wastewater;
  • garden and park waste;
  • selected waste from food-processing facilities.

This is a novel definition which is coherent with proposal 2015/0275 (COD) for a Directive of the European Parliament and of The Council amending Directive 2008/98/EC on waste, where “Biowaste” is defined as follows: “4. "bio-waste" means biodegradable garden and park waste, food and kitchen waste from households, restaurants, caterers and retail premises, comparable waste from food processing plants and other waste with similar biodegradability properties that is comparable in nature, composition and quantity;”

It has to be emphasized that the integrated treatment of different bio-waste streams requires that a state-of-the-art system for separate collection of each bio-waste is available, while an improvement of the waste transportation systems may be needed, as the various types of urban wastes are to be delivered to the same technical facility. Similarly, it is assumed that municipal wastewater is collected and treated to achieve present wastewater discharge standards (usually adopting nutrient removal approaches and standards), whereas sludge treatment and disposal can typically represent an issue either from economic or environmental point of view. Specific investigation will also include other waste streams, that are usually not collected together with organic waste (e.g. baby nappies), but that could potentially be accepted in the proposed process chain. Another waste stream of great interest is food-processing waste, provided it presents a suitable composition and that better recycling options in the food chain are not available. Of course, if any food-processing waste is included, its collection and transport has to be taken into account in the territorial and economic activities.